Environment and population

We focus largely on peer-reviewed articles published in the past decade with an occasional reference to important earlier work. Nevertheless, several indicators of consumption have grown at rates well above population growth in the past century: Population growth Population growth increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from onwards.

Africa, which has the fastest growing population of the continents, is projected to more than double the number of its inhabitants in the next 43 years—from million to approximately 2 billion.

Cornucopian theories espoused by some neoclassical economists stand in sharper contrast to neo-Malthunisianism because they posit that human ingenuity through the increased the supply of more creative people and market substitution as certain resources become scarce will avert future resource crises And how do these relationships vary in Environment and population and space?

A case in point is the vicious circle model VCMwhich attempts to explain sustained high fertility in the face of declining environmental resources 28 Will there be enough food to go around? In the case of neo-Malthusianism, population growth is the primary problem, and the solution is population programs.

Population stabilization and resource conservation Environment and population lead to the challenges of sustainability.

As with the demographic and development transitions, the world remains divided in various stages of the land-use transition 41 Figure 1. Population pressures have degraded some 2 billion hectares of arable land — an area the size of Canada and the U. Yet human activities are pushing many thousands of plant and animal species into extinction.

Inthe U. Fertility in the former is assumed to be half a child lower than the medium variant, and in the latter, it is assumed to be half a child higher. As we humans exploit nature to meet present needs, are we destroying resources needed for the future?

Neo-Malthusianism underpins the Club of Rome World Model mentioned above 9 and implicitly or explicitly underlies many studies and frameworks. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates.

Toward a livable future How people preserve or abuse the environment could largely determine whether living standards improve or deteriorate. It is important to note that population-environment theories may simultaneously operate at different scales, and thus could all conceivably be correct.

Some also group IPAT in this category because population is only one of the three variables contributing to environmental impacts. Water shortages, soil exhaustion, loss of forests, air and water pollution, and degradation of coastlines afflict many areas. Although theory may seem dry and academic, theoretical frameworks can be important guides to action.

As far as the future is concerned, barring major policy changes or economic downturns, there is no reason to suspect that consumption trends will change significantly in the near term. The shares of other regions are projected to remain about the same as today.

This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. The revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects presents a medium variant projection by of 9.

We now turn to a review of the five issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems.

Practicing sustainable development requires a combination of wise public investment, effective natural resource management, cleaner agricultural and industrial technologies, less pollution, and slower population growth.

Abstract The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. As population and demand for natural resources continue to grow, environmental limits will become increasingly apparent. In this model, it is hypothesized that there are a number of positive feedback loops that contribute to a downward spiral of population growth, resource depletion, and rising poverty see the land degradation section.

In the long run, to sustain higher living standards, world population size must stabilize. Political ecology also frequently informs the population-environment literature Adherents of Malthus have generally been termed neo-Malthusians. Bywhen world population is projected to be 8 billion, 48 countries containing 3 billion people will face shortages.

When family planning information and services are widely available and accessible, couples are better able to achieve their fertility desires. Yet, by the same token, it is a tradition that has often sought to reduce environmental change to a mere function of population size or growth.

Population and Environment

While population growth has slowed, the absolute number of people continues to increase — by about 1 billion every 13 years. The UN estimated recently that population is growing by about 78 million per year, down from about 90 million estimated early in the s.

If the global temperature rises as projected, sea levels would rise by several meters, causing widespread flooding.Population & Environment is the sole social science journal focused on interdisciplinary research on social demographic aspects of environmental issues.

The journal publishes cutting-edge research that contributes new insights on the complex, reciprocal links between human populations and the natural environment in all regions and countries of.

Population and Environment "The nation’s ongoing debate over immigration generally has not focused on the effect it has on U.S. population size.

Population

Yet, increasing the nation’s total population is one of immigration’s clearest and most direct effects. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, region, country or world; population is usually determined by a process called census (a process of collecting, analyzing, compiling and publishing data) This article refers mainly to human population.

The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains.

Slowing the increase in population, especially in the face of rising per capita demand for natural resources, can take pressure off the environment and buy time to improve living standards on a sustainable basis. 3,8,11, Population and Environment is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the bi-directional links between population, natural resources, and the natural environment.

The editor-in-chief is Dr Elizabeth Fussell, associate professor of population studies and .

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Environment and population
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